Patient-reported Outcome (PRO)
PRO refers to any report on the status of a patient's health condition that comes directly from the patient. PRO is essential in designing studies, evaluating interventions, educating consumers, and informing health policy makers involved with regulatory, reimbursement, and advisory agencies. The Interpretation of PRO remains challenging
PRO-related Study Design
We provide PRO-related study design for clinical trials, observational studies, and other types of study.
PRO in Systematic Reviews
Systematic reviews are only valuable if they answer patient relevant questions with evidence on outcomes that matter to patients.
By considering and interpreting the most appropriate PROs in systematic reviews, we will provide evidence grounded in the real world, ensure the relevance of the systematic reviews to patients, and thus to our clients, enhance the connection between patients and health care provider, and overcome the barriers of evidence dissemination.
PRO in Clinical Practice Guidelines
With access to the databases on anchor-based minimal important differences, we provide most reliable interpretation on patient-reported outcomes throughout the guideline development process. This would resolve one of the biggest challenges in interpreting continuous outcomes meaningfully to various stakeholders.
Considering patient-reported outcome increases multiple stakeholders (including patients)' acceptability, therefore, facilitates the implementation of guideline recommendations.
Cost-utility analysis (CUA) is the most frequently used economic evaluation method. It employs quality-adjusted life year (QALY), which includes both quality and quantity of life, to measure the outcomes of interventions. In CUAs, quality of life usually is measured by indirect preference-based instruments.
For model-based economic evaluations, our team has extensive experience in finding and identifying the most appropriate quality of life evidence. We also provide professional services for instrument selection, data collection, and analysis for trial-based economic evaluations.